Today in History:

169 Series I Volume II- Serial 2 - First Manassas


without immediate increase of force to replace them. They will not remain.

I have ordered the brigades to assemble this afternoon, and shall make a personal appeal to the troops to stay a few days until I can be re-enforced. Many of the regiments are without shoes; the Government refuses to furnish them; the men have received no pay, and neither officers nor soldiers have money to purchase with. Under these circumstances, I cannot ask or expect the three months' volunteers to stay longer than one week. Two companies of Pennsylvania volunteers were discharged to-day and ordered home. I to-day place additional force at Harper's Ferry, and establish communication with Maryland.

I send Captain Newton to prepare for its defense.


Major-General, Commanding.

(Repeated same day.)

CHARLESTOWN, VA., July 18, 1861.

COLONEL: I arrived at this place on the 17th instant. Nothing of importance occurred on the march. The principal inhabitants left some ten days since, anticipating its occupation by the Federal troops. It was till our arrival the location of a band of secession militia, engaged in pressing into service the young men of the country.

I have to acknowledge the receipt of two telegrams from the General-in-Chief of the 17th and 18th instants, both looking to a movement and attack upon Winchester. A state of affairs existed which the General-in-Chief is not aware of, though in some respects anticipated by his instructions that if I found the enemy too strong to attack, to threaten and make demonstrations to retain him at Winchester. I more than carried out the wishes of the General-in-Chief in this respect.

Before I left Martinsburg I was informed of a large increase to Johnston's command, and the visit to Winchester of the leading members of the Confederate Army. Just before General McDowell was to strike I advanced to Bunker Hill, causing surprise, and, I have since learned, an additional increase of force.

On Tuesday I sent out a reconnoitering party toward Winchester. It drove in the enemy's pickets, and caused the army to be formed in line of battle, anticipating an attack from my main force. This party found the road barricaded and blocked by fallen trees. The following day I left for this place.

Before marching from Martinsburg I head of the muttering of many of the volunteer regiments, and their expressed determination not to serve one hour after their term of service should expire. I anticipated a better expression of opinion as we approached the enemy, and hoped to hear of a willingness to remain a week or ten days. i was disappointed, and when I prepared for a movement to the front, by an order for the men to carry two days' provisions in their haversacks, I was assailed by earnest remonstrances against being detained over their time-complaints from officers of want of shoes and other clothing-all throwing obstacles in the way of active operations. Indeed, I found I should, if I took Winchester, be without men, and be forced to retreat, and thus lose the fruits of victory. Under the circumstances neither I nor those on whom I could rely could advance with any confidence. I am, therefore, now here with a force which will be dwindling away very rapidly. I to-day appealed almost in vain to the regiments